American Black Bear
Not all black bears are black—their fur can range in color from pure white to a cinnamon color to very dark brown or black. Most populations have a mixture of these colors, including the pure white form which is found in some individuals in the island archipelago in southern British Columbia (Kermodi Island). This white black bear, which is called spirit bears, revered by Native Americans, is caused by inheriting a recessive gene for coat color from both the mother and the father who could, themselves, both be black.
A Genetic reason results in the light grey coat color called the “blue” or glacier bear in southeastern Alaska. Regardless of these genetic variants, most of the bears in any region are black in color. Some bears have a white patch on their chests. They have a short, inconspicuous tail, longish ears, a relatively straight profile from nose to forehead, and small, dark eyes.
B Black bears have relatively short claws which enable them to climb trees. Unlike cats, the claws are non-retractable. Other than color, how do black bears differ from grizzly bears? Black bears have longer and less rounded ears and a more straight profile from forehead to nose compared to grizzly bears. Grizzlies have larger shoulder humps and a more dished-in facial profile and much longer front claws that are evident in the tracks. Black bears and grizzly bears can both have a wide variety of colors and sizes, but most commonly in areas where both species occur, black bears are smaller and darker than grizzly bears. Size: Black bears in some areas where food is scarce are much smaller than in other areas where food is abundant. Typically, adults are approximately 3 feet tall at the shoulder, and their length from nose to tail is about 75 inches. All bears, including black bears, are sexually dimorphic—meaning adult males are much larger than adult females. A large male black bear can exceed 600 lbs in weight while females seldom exceed 200 lbs.
C American black bears are omnivorous, meaning they will eat a variety of things, including both plants and meat. Their diet includes roots, berries, meat, fish, insects, larvae, grass and other succulent plants. They are able to kill adult deer and other hoofed wildlife but most commonly are only able to kill deer, elk, moose and other hoofed animals when these are very young. They are able to kill livestock especially sheep. Bears are very attracted to human garbage, livestock food or pet food, or other human associated foods including fruit trees. Bears using these human associated foods can quickly become habituated to them and this commonly results in the bears being killed as nuisances. This is true for bee hives as well as bears are very attracted to honey.
D Black bears can live up to 30 years in the wild but most die before they are in their early 20s. Because of their versatile diet, black bears can live in a variety of habitat types. They inhabit both coniferous and deciduous forests as well as open alpine habitats. They typically do not occur on the Great Plains or other wide open areas except along river courses where there is riparian vegetation and trees. They can live just about anywhere they can find food, but largely occur where there are trees. The American black bear’s range covers most of the North American continent. They are found in Alaska, much of Canada and the United States, and extend as far south as northern Mexico.
E Black bears are typically solitary creatures except for family (a female with cubs) groups and during mating season, which peaks in May and June. Following fertilization, the embryo doesn’t implant in the uterus until fall at the time of den entrance. This process of delayed implantation occurs in all bear species and allows the female bear’s body to physiologically “assess” her condition before implantation occurs and the period of gestation leading to the birth of cubs really begins. Delayed implantation allows the female to not
waste fat reserves and energy in sustaining a pregnancy that would have little chance of success because her condition is too poor. Females give birth to cubs every other year if food sources are sufficiently plentiful. In years when food supplies are scarce a female may skip an additional year or two between litters. The cubs are born in the mother’s winter den, and will den with her again the following winter. The following spring when the cubs are 1.5 years old, the cubs and female will separate and the female will breed again. A black bear litter can be 1-5 cubs but most commonly litters are 2 cubs.
F Conservation efforts for black bears have been effective and in most areas black bears are increasing and can sustain managed sport hunting. In areas with human populations, this can cause conflicts because bears are very attracted to human foods and refuse as well as to livestock and livestock foods. Since bears are large and strong animals, many people fear them and resent the damage they can cause. The key to successful co-existence between humans and bears is to recognize that it is no longer possible for either species to occupy all habitats but that where co-occupancy is possible and desirable, humans must be responsible for the welfare of the bear population. Wild areas with little human footprint will remain the most important habitat for bears but peaceful co-existence can occur in the urban-wildland interface as long as humans take the necessary steps to assure that the relationship remains a positive one.
G The American black bear is not currently a species of conservation concern and even the formerly listed black bear of Florida and Louisiana is now increasing. Habitats in western Texas from which black bears were extirpated are now being re-colonized.
The reading Passage has seven paragraphs A-G.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter A-G, in boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet.
NB You may use any letter more than once.
1 Variety of eating habit
2 Confliction between bear and human
3 Size of black bears
4 Different territorial range
5 Compare two kinds of bear
6 Explanation of fur color variation
7 Typical reproduction and breed habit
Filling the blanks below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer
8 American indigenous people name white fur bear as …..
9 Male bears are larger than females, which is called ….. .
10 Bear often died from …. because they relied on human.
11 Black bear’s maximum age in the wild is ……
12 allows female bears to judge whether everything is ready for ….. breeding.
13 A significant way for human to co-exist with bear is that we need ….. instead of occupying all habitats.
Cambridge IELTS Reading 5-17 Explanation